1. Current Situation of aquaculture in Nigeria
Nigeria is located in West Africa, 3 degrees to 15 degrees east longitude, and latitude 4 degrees to 14 degrees, the South Atlantic Ocean to the Gulf of Guinea, north of Niger, Benin to the west, the East by Cameroon, across the north-east of Lake Chad (LakeChad) and the Chad to the sea. Land area of 923,768 square kilometers, the border line of 4035 kilometers long coastline of about 850 km. National annual rainfall and abundant underground water is rich in resources, surface water system developed, is a multi-river country. Wet coastal areas, rainfall from west to east, from north to south is gradually increasing. Annual rainfall of 1778 millimeters in western, eastern part of the 4318 millimeters and central regions to 1270 mm.
The northern edge of the area of only 508 millimeters.
Natural conditions from the above point of view, it should be said in most parts of Nigeria have to carry out the basic conditions required for aquaculture, if the local conditions around the use of scientific methods to carry out aquaculture, aquatic product should be a sufficient number of Nigerian market, rich variety and the price is moderate.
But the reality of the Nigerian market, aquatic products (except for the southern coastal areas) the number of poor, a single species, and the price is very expensive, to the capital, Abuja, supermarkets, for example, about 20cm of small yellow croaker (frozen), each cost about 1.1 dollars . Government to meet the market demand, a large number of dollars a year have to pay import of aquatic products, according to UN Food and Agriculture (FAO) to provide the data show that from 1996 to 2001, Nigeria spent a total of 1,425.2 million dollars to buy 25,934 tons of aquatic products on the market, this expenditures, for a day of the population living on less than 1 dollars accounted for 70% of the country’s total population of the developing countries, Is a heavy financial burden.
Due to shortage of funds, resulting in a very good natural conditions in Nigeria and quite a number of fisheries, hatcheries abandoned in idle state. A lot of idle farms with less money as long as the input to the maintenance of a simple transformation can be put into production, such as the appropriate re-use of modern scientific farming methods, you can create a better economic benefit.
2. Sino-Nepalese cooperation and development of aquaculture ideas
Nigeria’s aquaculture industry with almost all the natural conditions, but because of the existing foundation is too weak, it is not with large-scale development of aquaculture conditions. Therefore, the development of aquaculture in Nigeria should be based on existing conditions and Nepal, first of all strive for training technical personnel in various ways (such as South-South cooperation by the technical group in the local training and TCDC in my combination of in-country training), and actively raise funds, adapted to local conditions to promote advanced technologies, a gradual approach to the formation of industry scale.
(1) the use of South-South platform, showing the Chinese technology, and gradually expand the demonstration effect, multi-channel seek sources of funding.
The level of agricultural technology in China than in the Nigerian leader for decades, is currently in Nepal to participate in China’s South-South cooperation and technical personnel a lot of people equipped with special skills to carry a lot of practical, sophisticated fishing technology to promote Nepal. Recommended by the Chinese farming technology and farming methods to local direct comparison of the original (single-tail weight, breeding cycles, cost and economic benefits, etc.), not only for the South-South cooperation has played an effective role in technology demonstration, while driving around the farmers could be further breeding initiative to raise their technological level and farming income. By demonstrating the results produced using Chinese technology, expanding social influence,
Nigeria has won the trust of officials and farmers, prompting some of the more powerful farmers and other potential investors to sponsor personnel, investment or contracted form of participation in aquaculture development.
(2) the introduction of related products in China to support aquaculture development in Nicaragua?
Nigeria‘s aquaculture industry behind the current situation of China-related businesses, is a development opportunity. I have not yet given the current substantial involvement of business realities of Nigerian agricultural sector, the proposed multi-actively promote the domestic aquaculture industry in Nigeria has investment intentions of companies to Nepal-site inspection, the two sides in Nepal to promote aquaculture in co-operation in an appropriate manner, so that both the to further strengthen bilateral cooperation in the field of agriculture, but also gives me the full participation of enterprises in the future agricultural development in Nigeria to seize the opportunities. By working together, could also contribute to the domestic aquaculture industry, agriculture and other professional fields related materials, equipment, materials, exports, increase employment,
Serve multiple purposes.
(3) full resources of untapped
Group field trips through the South-South Nigeria, there are many abandoned farms, hatcheries, better conditions, such as crossriver, Bauchi, Gombe, Ondo State and so on. For these existing equipment resources, as long as a little transformation, can become a significant production of the fine fishing grounds or hatcheries, they will cause the development of aquaculture in Nigeria and lay a good foundation.
(4) to strengthen fisheries management model
To Nigeria to carry out the diffusion of technology at the same time, the introduction of China‘s fisheries business model. Chinese technical personnel as much as possible to participate in fisheries operations to reduce unnecessary expenditure, reduce operating costs, to stimulate the working enthusiasm of the workers, so as to create the greatest economic benefit fisheries. Through technology demonstrations and a two-pronged business model, prompting more farmers to join the Nigerian side aquaculture production to. The introduction of business model will be conducive to the consolidation of the results obtained, to avoid any demonstration, after obtaining a certain effect due to lack of follow-up capital investment, no management was forced to abandoned history repeat itself.
(5) to promote fish products processing technologies
In order to benefit as the center, to carry out comprehensive management. Must fully consider the deep processing of aquatic products in order to increase value-added products, increase economic efficiency. Combination of Nigeria’s national conditions, to select some low-cost, simple equipment, and strong capacity, short cycle can be accepted by the local methods be promoted. Some domestic traditional salted fish, salted fish, dried fish, use of solar energy and other methods could also be testing the promotion. Some of the more advanced fish processing methods, such as the production of fish intestines, fish, noodles and other processing technologies mature, and may also consider looking for investors invest and build factories in Nigeria in the production.
(6) to promote a more rational method of feed formulation and feeding
Light of local resources, multi-channel, multi-method design production for the region’s fish feed. Priority should be given to set the black flag bulbs lure insects, the use of animal manure and livestock slaughtering leftover cultivate maggots, earthworms, termites, etc. to collect a more practical approach to improve the bait protein content in the feed formula to improve the process of increasing attention to fish meal, bone meal, blood meal, after fermentation of chicken feed and other raw materials to improve the nutritional value and promote the rapid development of aquaculture.
Note that processing in the feed palatability, nutrition, floating, add to the fish attractant power.
Strengthen the promotion of fodder feeding techniques, to take food sets, regular feeding, according to the weight of scientific methods to determine the amount of feeding to reduce feeding losses, reduce farming costs and increase breeding efficiency. Training in the rapid establishment of demonstration fish farm fish farm owners and workers, promote advanced feed technology, structure and put in fry density, management techniques, fish disease prevention and control technology.
(7) full use of resources to further increase the rice-fish culture and integrated fish farming models to promote eco-efforts
Nigeria, the development of rice-fish culture and pond fish farming has great potential, through South-South Cooperation Group tests prove that when using only 10% (22,000 hectares) of irrigated paddy rice to fish production can be increased to 6,000 tons of Nepal The fish production. Therefore, we can take advantage of the conditions for better locations for the establishment of more fish in rice-fish culture and ecological models, so that more farmers to master these technologies. While continuing to consolidate the progress achieved on the basis of selected outstanding fishery technical personnel to key areas such as Nepal and Fisheries Enogu states, CrossRiver State, Kaduna State, River State and Ondo State and other places to work Increase its technological demonstration effect. Their wealth of aquatic experience to help Nepal fishermen to better fisheries management and conduct of artificial breeding and hatching, while teaching Chinese artificial breeding, fish disease control and feeding methods, practical technology. In the case of funds to help these states build more rice-fish culture, fish pond, three-dimensional ecological model fish. For some areas of better economic conditions, in the full investigation based on the analysis, send technicians to help those around the community-managed small lake (or the old mine) the establishment of a demonstration model of cage fish culture. On the basis of existing technologies to further deepen the promotion of aquaculture.
(8) expanding variety of introduction, to promote a more rational eco-farming
Giving priority to seed production and supply, there are plans to build large-scale breeding center and the base, first of all be considered in aquaculture have some basis for Edo, Plateau, Kaduna and other states the establishment of tilapia and catfish fry breeding base, to meet the neighbors State farmers farming needs. In these hatchery production process, the introduction of advanced technology, the use of hybrid, all-male and other scientific and technological means, improved varieties of local culture and shorten the growth cycle and increase economic benefits.
Through the training of technical personnel to help improve their operations and fisheries production to increase fish production for aquaculture development provides a good base for development.
Nigeria, there are many in China are extremely rare or even extinct species, such as the trunk fish, and did not receive official attention. In the meantime, some Chinese farmed species, such as Hualian, silver carp, crucian carp, carp is very suitable for large-scale promotion in Nigeria, once introduced, will create great economic benefits.
3, constraints of aquaculture development in Nepal Analysis
Constraints of aquaculture development in Nigeria by many factors, but the most fundamental problem is the lack of necessary capital investment, these idle abandoned fishing grounds as long as the money invested less the maintenance of a simple transformation can be put into production, such as re-appropriate the use of modern of scientific farming methods, you can create a better economic benefit. Impact of aquaculture development in Nigeria other relevant questions are as follows:
(1) the lack of scale fry production
Aquatic products by the local market, the stimulus of high prices, many farmers have recognized aquaculture, high profits, have to use the front door after the house’s natural reservoirs to carry out extensive tunnel farming, more economic strength of farmers plans to invest in new or the transformation of fish ponds to develop aquaculture industry. However, hatchery fish in Nigeria, whether in quantity or the production terms are far from sufficient. The southern Edo state, for example, the state’s total hatchery 2, the output, but 200,000, to the supply of close to 56 state fish market, and therefore out of stock catfish fry just hatched catfish fry five naira (1 Chennai La ? 0.06 Yuan RMB) a,
Cultivate a week later 10 naira ,3-5 cm to 20 naira, large size and more expensive. As the seed tension, has seriously hindered the catfish farming industry.
As the scarcity of fish hatcheries north of fry supply base mainly in the Plateau State and Kaduna states, the South was mainly concentrated in the state Enugo state and Ibadan. Some farmers had to travel long distances for the purchase of fish fry, drove hundreds of kilometers away from purchasing, consumption of expensive fuel costs increased aquaculture production costs, but also not conducive to the survival of fish fry. These objective constraints have seriously affected the development of aquaculture in Nigeria, a blow to the development of aquaculture farmers the confidence and enthusiasm.
(2) the lack of the necessary equipment to support and supply of fishery drugs
By the Nigerian national capacity constraints, the majority of fishing equipment and the production of fishery drugs are blank, need to be imported from abroad. In order to reduce the federal deficit, a large number of restrictions on imports of agricultural goods, a number of fisheries in Nigeria can play a positive role in the rapid development of equipment and materials it is difficult to obtain. The Fishing supplies include: nets, fish feed processing equipment, fish processing machinery. Without the necessary device support, advanced technology has not fully utilized. Because of hot weather campaign in Nigeria, more serious harm fish diseases, resulting in relatively large losses.
Where catfish is a common skin fester disease and inflammatory bowel diseases, from the technically easily preventable, using some of the more common antibiotics can play a very good prevention. But by the fishery drugs in short supply constraints, high prices, it is difficult for farmers to accept. Therefore, most of the fish farm breeding rarely take precautionary measures to stay in farming has thus rely on rain-fed backward phase, once there is an outbreak of fish diseases will cause greater losses.
(3) bait source of nutrition inadequate, failing to fully exploit local resources, large-scale industries yet to be developed
Nigeria’s annual production of more than 3.8 million tons of animal feed, of which 68% of poultry feed, pig feed, 28%, while the fish feed only 35.57 thousand tons, the share of less than 1%.
Feed composition ratio anomaly is more common. In addition to a number of imported feed, the vast majority of feed only by the composition of beans and some grains, but can play role in promoting the development of aquaculture feed production enterprises of particles within Nepal is still a blank. Most of the fish farm aquaculture catfish are fed rice bran, wheat bran-based, a few fish farms added about 5% of the fishmeal. Because of the feed nutrients with irrational, feed conversion rate is low, greatly extend the breeding cycle, objectively speaking, has increased feed waste, increase production costs, lower farm production efficiency. Many places there are a large number of high-quality feed resources.
After a little processing can be utilized. Because of a lack of rational utilization of these resources approach, to some extent resulted in waste of resources. For example, the scraps in the process of development of animal husbandry, livestock and chicken offal, blood, bones, hair and so on, the collection is a high-quality processed fish feed. However, do not form a scale of Nigeria’s industrialization, there is no large meat processing plants, livestock slaughter handling are scattered in private, in order to collect these waste materials added to the difficulties, resulting in more serious waste. In the high-quality feed in short supply at the same time, inappropriate feeding methods also caused some of the waste of resources. Because
Feeding methods and the timing master for the poor, as well as feed production process backward, palatability, floating and poor there is a problem, and some feed, after put into water, there is no time for the fish feeding, and soon sink to the bottom wastage. Most of the fish farm feed feeding is not timely, improper methods of fish feeding less, are chronically hungry, resulting in fish weight, survival rate low.
Due to a lack of theoretical knowledge, and some places even fed moldy feed, played a counter-productive. Feed management, scientific, resulting in some 10 months of fishing grounds are only 5-6 double catfish.
(4) an unsuitable design of fish farms, breeding backward technology, poor management
Parts of Nigeria, the soil is sandy soil, stability, and water-poor can not meet the development of fish farming, but many farms without the survey analysis, blind investment and digging fish ponds, to put into production when it found that water leakage in the serious, simply can not be used for breeding. In contrast, those close to the river water of the lake year round development of swamp areas more suitable for aquaculture, can be used to supplement the solar surface seepage of water evaporation. However, some fisheries in the site without careful consideration, resulting in the rainy season in the overall fish pond has been flooded.
Popularization of scientific methods of well water fish go far enough. South high water table, wells easy, many farmers decided to adopt the method of fish farming wells extraction wells, but many fish farms was quickly abandoned after completion of the. The main reason is the use of wells for water, did not take into account the well water aeration treatment, lack of dissolved oxygen in groundwater caused by air bubbles have occurred frequently, caused losses to farming and eventually had to abandoned. Many of the daily management of extensive fish farm, stay in the fish fry into the pool after the no intentions of management. Some fish farms are not the different levels of farming, raising a number of fish from small to large, resulting in large and small, self-mutilation serious,
Low yield. Some of the breeding cycle, do not change the water, water quality degradation, fish growth was seriously affected.
(5) breeding varieties of single fish can not play the maximum effectiveness of eco –
Lack of the necessary species improvement. Although Nigeria has a lot of scientific research institutions, but because of financial constraints could not provide society with high-yielding varieties of culture. Currently farmed are basically local varieties, species degradation serious, the introduction of new varieties of rare, hybrid superiority, all-male control of advanced production technology rarely been applied here, farmed catfish individual small, the production cycle is long, products from fish fry to take 10 months or more times, is not conducive to significantly increase production.
Breeding process mainly tilapia and catfish mainly because catfish are carnivorous fish, in the food chain of the upper feed are higher, and can not make full use of existing resources. Some at the bottom of the production chain can be directly edible phytoplankton, and the grass of the omnivorous species, such as silver carp, Hualian, crucian carp breeding rare, these species can provide sufficient farming catfish bait. By comparison, a more reasonable composition of multi-level food chain, species of ecological farming model should be more conducive to raising production efficiency.